Настройка звука в Linux

На данный момент для прослушивания музыки я использую плеер Audacious в ОС Debian.

 

Вкратце расcкажу о настройках аудио сервера Pulseaudio.

Базовые настройки сервера:

/etc/pulse/daemon.conf

# This file is part of PulseAudio.
#
# PulseAudio is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
# it under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public License as published by
# the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
# (at your option) any later version.
#
# PulseAudio is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
# WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
# MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU
# General Public License for more details.
#
# You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public License
# along with PulseAudio; if not, write to the Free Software
# Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307
# USA.

## Configuration file for the PulseAudio daemon. See pulse-daemon.conf(5) for
## more information. Default values are commented out. Use either ; or # for
## commenting.

; daemonize = no
; fail = yes
; allow-module-loading = yes
; allow-exit = yes
; use-pid-file = yes
; system-instance = no
; local-server-type = user
; enable-shm = yes
; shm-size-bytes = 0 # setting this 0 will use the system-default, usually 64 MiB
; lock-memory = no
; cpu-limit = no

; high-priority = yes
; nice-level = -11

; realtime-scheduling = yes
; realtime-priority = 5

; exit-idle-time = 20
; scache-idle-time = 20

; dl-search-path = (depends on architecture)

; load-default-script-file = yes
; default-script-file = /etc/pulse/default.pa

; log-target = auto
; log-level = notice
; log-meta = no
; log-time = no
; log-backtrace = 0

# resample-method defaults to speex-float-1 on most architectures,
# speex-fixed-1 on ARM
#resample-method = src-sinc-best-quality
resample-method=soxr-vhq
; enable-remixing = yes
; enable-lfe-remixing = no

; flat-volumes = yes

; rlimit-fsize = -1
; rlimit-data = -1
; rlimit-stack = -1
; rlimit-core = -1
; rlimit-as = -1
; rlimit-rss = -1
; rlimit-nproc = -1
; rlimit-nofile = 256
; rlimit-memlock = -1
; rlimit-locks = -1
; rlimit-sigpending = -1
; rlimit-msgqueue = -1
; rlimit-nice = 31
; rlimit-rtprio = 9
; rlimit-rttime = 1000000

default-sample-format = s32le
default-sample-rate = 192000
alternate-sample-rate = 192000
; default-sample-channels = 2
; default-channel-map = front-left,front-right

; default-fragments = 4
; default-fragment-size-msec = 25

; enable-deferred-volume = yes
; deferred-volume-safety-margin-usec = 8000
; deferred-volume-extra-delay-usec = 0

[свернуть]

Настройка Alsa

/usr/share/alsa/alsa.conf

#
# ALSA library configuration file
#

# pre-load the configuration files

@hooks [
{
func load
files [
{
@func concat
strings [
{ @func datadir }
«/alsa.conf.d/»
]
}
«/etc/asound.conf»
«~/.asoundrc»
]
errors false
}
]

# load card-specific configuration files (on request)

cards.@hooks [
{
func load
files [
{
@func concat
strings [
{ @func datadir }
«/cards/aliases.conf»
]
}
]
}
{
func load_for_all_cards
files [
{
@func concat
strings [
{ @func datadir }
«/cards/»
{ @func private_string }
«.conf»
]
}
]
errors false
}
]

#
# defaults
#

# show all name hints also for definitions without hint {} section
defaults.namehint.showall on
# show just basic name hints
defaults.namehint.basic on
# show extended name hints
defaults.namehint.extended on
#
defaults.ctl.card 0
defaults.pcm.card 0
defaults.pcm.device 0
defaults.pcm.subdevice -1
defaults.pcm.nonblock 1
defaults.pcm.compat 0
defaults.pcm.minperiodtime 5000 # in us
defaults.pcm.ipc_key 5678293
defaults.pcm.ipc_gid audio
defaults.pcm.ipc_perm 0660
defaults.pcm.dmix.max_periods 0
defaults.pcm.dmix.rate 192000
defaults.pcm.dmix.format S32LE
defaults.pcm.dmix.card defaults.pcm.card
defaults.pcm.dmix.device defaults.pcm.device
defaults.pcm.dsnoop.card defaults.pcm.card
defaults.pcm.dsnoop.device defaults.pcm.device
defaults.pcm.front.card defaults.pcm.card
defaults.pcm.front.device defaults.pcm.device
defaults.pcm.rear.card defaults.pcm.card
defaults.pcm.rear.device defaults.pcm.device
defaults.pcm.center_lfe.card defaults.pcm.card
defaults.pcm.center_lfe.device defaults.pcm.device
defaults.pcm.side.card defaults.pcm.card
defaults.pcm.side.device defaults.pcm.device
defaults.pcm.surround21.card defaults.pcm.card
defaults.pcm.surround21.device defaults.pcm.device
defaults.pcm.surround40.card defaults.pcm.card
defaults.pcm.surround40.device defaults.pcm.device
defaults.pcm.surround41.card defaults.pcm.card
defaults.pcm.surround41.device defaults.pcm.device
defaults.pcm.surround50.card defaults.pcm.card
defaults.pcm.surround50.device defaults.pcm.device
defaults.pcm.surround51.card defaults.pcm.card
defaults.pcm.surround51.device defaults.pcm.device
defaults.pcm.surround71.card defaults.pcm.card
defaults.pcm.surround71.device defaults.pcm.device
defaults.pcm.iec958.card defaults.pcm.card
defaults.pcm.iec958.device defaults.pcm.device
defaults.pcm.modem.card defaults.pcm.card
defaults.pcm.modem.device defaults.pcm.device
# truncate files via file or tee PCM
defaults.pcm.file_format «raw»
defaults.pcm.file_truncate true
defaults.rawmidi.card 0
defaults.rawmidi.device 0
defaults.rawmidi.subdevice -1
defaults.hwdep.card 0
defaults.hwdep.device 0
defaults.timer.class 2
defaults.timer.sclass 0
defaults.timer.card 0
defaults.timer.device 0
defaults.timer.subdevice 0

#
# PCM interface
#

# redirect to load-on-demand extended pcm definitions
pcm.cards cards.pcm

pcm.default cards.pcm.default
pcm.sysdefault cards.pcm.default
pcm.front cards.pcm.front
pcm.rear cards.pcm.rear
pcm.center_lfe cards.pcm.center_lfe
pcm.side cards.pcm.side
pcm.surround21 cards.pcm.surround21
pcm.surround40 cards.pcm.surround40
pcm.surround41 cards.pcm.surround41
pcm.surround50 cards.pcm.surround50
pcm.surround51 cards.pcm.surround51
pcm.surround71 cards.pcm.surround71
pcm.iec958 cards.pcm.iec958
pcm.spdif iec958
pcm.hdmi cards.pcm.hdmi
pcm.dmix cards.pcm.dmix
pcm.dsnoop cards.pcm.dsnoop
pcm.modem cards.pcm.modem
pcm.phoneline cards.pcm.phoneline

pcm.hw {
@args [ CARD DEV SUBDEV ]
@args.CARD {
type string
default {
@func getenv
vars [
ALSA_PCM_CARD
ALSA_CARD
]
default {
@func refer
name defaults.pcm.card
}
}
}
@args.DEV {
type integer
default {
@func igetenv
vars [
ALSA_PCM_DEVICE
]
default {
@func refer
name defaults.pcm.device
}
}
}
@args.SUBDEV {
type integer
default {
@func refer
name defaults.pcm.subdevice
}
}
type hw
card $CARD
device $DEV
subdevice $SUBDEV
hint {
show {
@func refer
name defaults.namehint.extended
}
description «Direct hardware device without any conversions»
}
}

pcm.plughw {
@args [ CARD DEV SUBDEV ]
@args.CARD {
type string
default {
@func getenv
vars [
ALSA_PCM_CARD
ALSA_CARD
]
default {
@func refer
name defaults.pcm.card
}
}
}
@args.DEV {
type integer
default {
@func igetenv
vars [
ALSA_PCM_DEVICE
]
default {
@func refer
name defaults.pcm.device
}
}
}
@args.SUBDEV {
type integer
default {
@func refer
name defaults.pcm.subdevice
}
}
type plug
slave.pcm {
type hw
card $CARD
device $DEV
subdevice $SUBDEV
}
hint {
show {
@func refer
name defaults.namehint.extended
}
description «Hardware device with all software conversions»
}
}

pcm.plug {
@args [ SLAVE ]
@args.SLAVE {
type string
}
type plug
slave.pcm $SLAVE
}

pcm.shm {
@args [ SOCKET PCM ]
@args.SOCKET {
type string
}
@args.PCM {
type string
}
type shm
server $SOCKET
pcm $PCM
}

pcm.tee {
@args [ SLAVE FILE FORMAT ]
@args.SLAVE {
type string
}
@args.FILE {
type string
}
@args.FORMAT {
type string
default {
@func refer
name defaults.pcm.file_format
}
}
type file
slave.pcm $SLAVE
file $FILE
format $FORMAT
truncate {
@func refer
name defaults.pcm.file_truncate
}
}

pcm.file {
@args [ FILE FORMAT ]
@args.FILE {
type string
}
@args.FORMAT {
type string
default {
@func refer
name defaults.pcm.file_format
}
}
type file
slave.pcm null
file $FILE
format $FORMAT
truncate {
@func refer
name defaults.pcm.file_truncate
}
}

pcm.null {
type null
hint {
show {
@func refer
name defaults.namehint.basic
}
description «Discard all samples (playback) or generate zero samples (capture)»
}
}

#
# Control interface
#

ctl.sysdefault {
type hw
card {
@func getenv
vars [
ALSA_CTL_CARD
ALSA_CARD
]
default {
@func refer
name defaults.ctl.card
}
}
hint.description «Default control device»
}
ctl.default ctl.sysdefault

ctl.hw {
@args [ CARD ]
@args.CARD {
type string
default {
@func getenv
vars [
ALSA_CTL_CARD
ALSA_CARD
]
default {
@func refer
name defaults.ctl.card
}
}
}
type hw
card $CARD
hint.description «Direct control device»
}

ctl.shm {
@args [ SOCKET CTL ]
@args.SOCKET {
type string
}
@args.CTL {
type string
}
type shm
server $SOCKET
ctl $CTL
}

#
# RawMidi interface
#

rawmidi.default {
type hw
card {
@func getenv
vars [
ALSA_RAWMIDI_CARD
ALSA_CARD
]
default {
@func refer
name defaults.rawmidi.card
}
}
device {
@func igetenv
vars [
ALSA_RAWMIDI_DEVICE
]
default {
@func refer
name defaults.rawmidi.device
}
}
hint.description «Default raw MIDI device»
}

rawmidi.hw {
@args [ CARD DEV SUBDEV ]
@args.CARD {
type string
default {
@func getenv
vars [
ALSA_RAWMIDI_CARD
ALSA_CARD
]
default {
@func refer
name defaults.rawmidi.card
}
}
}
@args.DEV {
type integer
default {
@func igetenv
vars [
ALSA_RAWMIDI_DEVICE
]
default {
@func refer
name defaults.rawmidi.device
}
}
}
@args.SUBDEV {
type integer
default -1
}
type hw
card $CARD
device $DEV
subdevice $SUBDEV
hint {
description «Direct rawmidi driver device»
device $DEV
}
}

rawmidi.virtual {
@args [ MERGE ]
@args.MERGE {
type string
default 1
}
type virtual
merge $MERGE
}

#
# Sequencer interface
#

seq.default {
type hw
hint.description «Default sequencer device»
}

seq.hw {
type hw
}

#
# HwDep interface
#

hwdep.default {
type hw
card {
@func getenv
vars [
ALSA_HWDEP_CARD
ALSA_CARD
]
default {
@func refer
name defaults.hwdep.card
}
}
device {
@func igetenv
vars [
ALSA_HWDEP_DEVICE
]
default {
@func refer
name defaults.hwdep.device
}
}
hint.description «Default hardware dependent device»
}

hwdep.hw {
@args [ CARD DEV ]
@args.CARD {
type string
default {
@func getenv
vars [
ALSA_HWDEP_CARD
ALSA_CARD
]
default {
@func refer
name defaults.hwdep.card
}
}
}
@args.DEV {
type integer
default {
@func igetenv
vars [
ALSA_HWDEP_DEVICE
]
default {
@func refer
name defaults.hwdep.device
}
}
}
type hw
card $CARD
device $DEV
hint {
description «Direct hardware dependent device»
device $DEV
}
}

#
# Timer interface
#

timer_query.default {
type hw
}

timer_query.hw {
type hw
}

timer.default {
type hw
class {
@func refer
name defaults.timer.class
}
sclass {
@func refer
name defaults.timer.sclass
}
card {
@func refer
name defaults.timer.card
}
device {
@func refer
name defaults.timer.device
}
subdevice {
@func refer
name defaults.timer.subdevice
}
hint.description «Default timer device»
}

timer.hw {
@args [ CLASS SCLASS CARD DEV SUBDEV ]
@args.CLASS {
type integer
default {
@func refer
name defaults.timer.class
}
}
@args.SCLASS {
type integer
default {
@func refer
name defaults.timer.sclass
}
}
@args.CARD {
type string
default {
@func refer
name defaults.timer.card
}
}
@args.DEV {
type integer
default {
@func refer
name defaults.timer.device
}
}
@args.SUBDEV {
type integer
default {
@func refer
name defaults.timer.subdevice
}
}
type hw
class $CLASS
sclass $SCLASS
card $CARD
device $DEV
subdevice $SUBDEV
hint {
description «Direct timer device»
device $DEV
}
}

[свернуть]

настройка asoundrc в корне домашней директории пользователя

~/.asoundrc

# This file is referred to by /usr/share/alsa/pulse.conf to set pulseaudio as
# the default output plugin for applications using alsa when PulseAudio is
# running.

pcm.!default {
type pulse
hint {
show on
description «Playback/recording through the PulseAudio sound server»
}
}

ctl.!default {
type pulse
}

[свернуть]

В качестве ресемплера я использую библиотеку SoX. Необходимые настройки выделены красным. На данный момент используется транспорт CM6631A, поэтому формат вывода S32_LE, 192 кГц.

Проверить параметры вывода можно здесь:

/proc/asound/card1/pcm0p/sub0/hw_params

access: MMAP_INTERLEAVED
format: S32_LE
subformat: STD
channels: 2
rate: 192000 (192000/1)
period_size: 65536
buffer_size: 131072

[свернуть]

Прошу обратить внимание, путь к файлу hw_params зависит от установленных звуковых карт в системе, у меня их 2 и адаптер CM6631A оказался вторым (потому что на USB), поэтому /proc/asound/card1/pcm0p/sub0/hw_params

Для корректной работы SoX ресемплера должна быть установлена библиотека libsoxr0. Настройка позволяет глобально использовать ресемплер во всех приложениях, выводящих звук через pulseaudio.

Настройка Audacious:

 

 

В целом звучание в системе Linux с Pulseaudio мне больше нравится, чем в ОС Windows, звук более насыщенный.

 

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